December , 3, 2015 International Symposium, Keynote Speech
Creative renovation through campus managements in Nagoya University
I am talking about how we can have team building and specific activities that we engage in Nagoya University.
We have three major campuses, more than 20,000 people live on the campus, and annual budget is around a 100 billion yen. Annual CO2 emission is 75,000 tons. Unfortunately in Nagoya, this is the largest. And of the budget of a 100 billion yen, about 10 billion yen is used to facilities. How to make full use of the budget is one of our topics and issues. I’ll be talking about the main Higashiyama Campus.
We have a central green belt area, and landscape conservation area closeby. And we have different buildings surrounding the green belt and the landscape conservation area. Total site area would be 700,000 square meters. Total area of the buildings 580,000 square meters, number of buildings 260, and how we can manage this on a sustainable level is something that we look on.
So, campus management is the method that we have introduced. I’ll be talking about the master plan of the campus, and the management cycle for the realization of that PDCA cycle to realize. I’d like to explain about that, and also the management to support that is prefilled, design management, facility management, and energy management respectively.
Now, first about the campus master plan. This shows the overall strategy of the campus, and this would be the guideline of the continuous maintenance and operational efforts. And we want to create the campus master plan which will foresee the future and try to identify what is needed with that.
We now have the name called campus planning and environmental management office, which was originally campus planning office. And this is the campus management structure. We have the campus management group of course, we have the trustees, president, and also we have administrative facility management, and we also have the promotion office that I belong in.
So, collaboration between the different entities will allow for the support necessary, and environmental departments, as well as students, researchers will be involved. And if there’s some architecture required, there would be companies involved and assessment from third parties, and also projects can be worked together with local governments as well.
Now campus management system is what we used, and at Nagoya University I talked about the campus master plan which acts as a core.
That would first be prepared and we would have facility management, energy management, and design management perspectives. These are the three major management components to realize the plan. And as per the output, we want to reflect the fruit of that to the society and the future CMPs, there would be feedback to the future. Basic cycle of the management plan. So, the president of Nagoya University will be determining the objectives, give the instructions on action planning etcetera, and to this, the facilities control department, planning and environmental management office will be involved, and there will be collaboration between these and different entities.
And then, it will be brought to the different departments for implementation. There would be a check process to look at the issues and prior to set the next term target, that’s the PDCA cycle. The campus master plan which acts as a core, in 1995. We have prepared such plans, and now 2016 CMP, the sixth plan is about to be prepared. We want accumulation and evolution. So, on a continual basis, we are trying to improve the plan. Back then, we did create the master plan, but other people didn’t recognize it. We did have the plan, but it was difficult to realize it. But facility management method was introduced to support practice, and we created action plans to make it feasible.
And now, in CMP 2016, support from facility management moving toward campus management is how we are transitioning. This is the CMP master plan concept. Basically, you have as a concept for planning three major pillars. And one of it would be creating ecology campus, a low carbon emitting eco campus. And related to education as you see, and facility management will be supporting the plan. So, as per the structure, we have the basic plan, basic objective created, we look at what’s present in the campus, extract issues, and then, create a long term vision three years ahead, and then, create an excellent plan for six years. So, it’s like a two-step approach.
And then, how facility management can support that also would be planned. This is currently campus management, and we also have asset management.
Number two, this is for new buildings and retrofits design managements for such construction projects. I would like to give you some specifics on this. So, in the past 10 years or so, looking at the Higashiyama main campus, we have about 480,000 square meters. And we had worked on new builds and retrofits at 230,000 square meters of it. So, quite an amount of money was necessary. And our office also had been involved in this project.
Now, campus master plan. In the future, we have setup specific targets as the type of buildings that we like to have, and we have a further project, we started in 2011. This is ES building, engineering and science building.
We wanted to create an architectural design which will solicit and strengthen communication. Communication focus research space was the thought. And for the first time, as a national university, we have LED lighting throughout the building, and other vertical shading louvers have been considered, and we looked at the earth air heat exchange properties. Natural ventilation was promoted, as well as dry mist cooler system had been considered as well.
How to induce and solicit communication, we have some space part of the building. This is a corridor, but we wanted for it to be used for discussion purposes to have dialogue. So, we had white boards on the corridor as well as being part of the room. This is a hall, but at the hall we will be able to have presentation session. This was a meeting area as well. So, we considered the use of corridors, how we can, you know, solicit and motivate communication amongst the members. That’s for the new buildings.
For the future, we wanted to create a building stock which was of high quality, and we wanted to have a system which will guarantee such a quality. We used the total building commissioning system. I believe this is something that is done in the western world for particularly all of the projects, but in Japan this was something new. We don’t see a lot of introduction of total commissioning.
So, our office and the construction company will be taking total responsibility of the overall building. And now we wanted to do a secure and confirm the quality of the building, and this has been done through this commissioning method. Now, here for example, now there will be certain requirements of the building. The owner would need to identify the requirements. This is what is called as OPRs, Owner’s Project Requirements, what kind of performance is expected, what is the positioning of the building, that kind of information would need to be put together.
And then, we need to have definition of project requirements and obligation for design infrastructures as well. We did have a system for appraisal and assessment from a third party.
2010, this was done at the joint research building, and for new buildings we have followed the commissioning process. Regarding commissioning examples, last month in November, this is the building just built, and this is a non-sized building. So, zero energy building was the concept. That was the target. So, compared to previous buildings, we want to see how we can have energy savings less than 40% of existing products. We put together an OPR, and we have to consider different methods to realize that.
And so, we wanted to have a good installation of buildings and air-conditioning etcetera. And the target setting, 633 energy consumption at the stage of design, we would estimate the usage of energy, and we were able to come up with them result as you see here. We kept on having meetings to see how we can achieve the requirements that we had.
Number three, I’ll talk about facility management.
Now fixed assets represent 85% of Nagoya University’s total assets, buildings, and land 71%. So, there’s high level of fixed assets at Nagoya University. And as for the operating profit, last fiscal year, we had 96 billion, and also we had certain subsidies from the government, which represented 30%. But the subsidy from the government is going down by 1% per annum. We wanted to see how we can make best use of the limited amount of money that we had.
So, this was part of the important campus management work. In the past decade, we looked at the building assets, and also maintenance cost required. The red is the asset of the building, the blue is for equipment and fixtures. So, this is before depreciation. So, the blue would be quite different from the parcentage that I’ve talked about before. This shows about the amount of money invested by the university. That’s why I showed the figures before depreciation.
And against that, as for energy and water expenses which is in green, and maintenance cost in light green. So, for buildings and equipment you see that money is going up. So, in indicators, so it’s going up by 60 billion. And now, you see that energy and water expenses is priced together with maintenance cost. So, this was because, through facility management, we have been able to see the fruit that we were able to convey through the past effort.
Now, for aging of buildings. Buildings over 47 years is 25% of the campus, and in six years’ time it would exceed 32% of the overall campus area that exceeds 47 years after construction. It would require 75 billion yen or to retrofit everything. We won’t be able to afford that. As a result we would need to see how we can expand a lifespan of the building.
Now, in this limited number of money and funds, how to optimize the campus is the positive management cycle. At the bottom you see what we do at Nagoya University. We believe that assessment and target management is important. And we do need to continue with PDCA cycle. And now, we do need to work with limited funds, and how to have optimum allocation would be also very critical as well.
We would have facility inspection every year, and we need to see what the defects are, what the failures are, what kind of the annual repairs are necessary. We’ll have a list of that. And then, we would estimate the repair cost, and now we would use the portfolio control method to look at the priority. So, we would have a priority based approach in deciding where to invest.
Maintenance cost is always assured, and how to secure that would be an issue. We need to create a system. Maybe a bit difficult to see here, but different departments, they’re spending repair costs every year. So, whenever there are major repairs, you know, it goes up. So, you see that it fluctuates quite greatly at the respective departments. But the idea is to see how we can level that. And as the method to realize that, every year, for repair cost we would collect certain amount of money, and we started to create funds. And of course, there would be rational required for that.
Between 2009, 2010 we showed actual figure, and we also had setup plans for beyond 2023 as for maintenance plans. We recognized calculation wise that we need about 500 million yen per year. That was the basis, and 5% from the budget of the respective departments, and from headquarters certain amount of money was added as funds to be used for repairs and maintenance.
Aging, air-conditioning equipment, roof top waterproofing and piping etcetera would be the subject of such work. Next I would like to talk about energy management for using low carbon. This is my area specialty. But before I talk about energy, I’d like to talk about campus behavior and energy use.
Undergraduates, are no change, there’s an increase in number of graduate students. For national universities, there’s a strict selection or focus to graduate student. So, that is why we are having more graduate students.
Based on this, we had a shortage of floor space. We needed more buildings at this point, we existed as a national university owned by the national government. And at this point, we became independent administrative entities. We needed to operate on our own. We needed to have external fund. We needed more funds from outside.
With these external funds, we had to activate research, and we had increase in number of students. The energy consumption increased on campus. And next is the planning, and for regulations in response to revised energy saving plan, there is a social movement. We had the revision of the law in 2003. And with this, the university realized that we had to control our energy consumption. We established our own energy saving regulation.
To operate this, we had to setup a expert committee for energy use on campus, and we discussed how we can save energy consumption. In the campus master plan, how did we position that within the master plan, and at the time of 2010 compared to 2004, at the 2015, we set the target of decreased reduction over 20%. So, this was our target for reducing CO2 emissions.
And how to do this is our methods is summarized here. So, we have various methods for reducing CO2emissions. For example, for new energy buildings, we had to upgrade the performance, how the insulated buildings had to be made, and also building there for load reduction of solar radiation was another method.
And next for facilities, adoption of high efficiency equipment, and recently built buildings, standardization of LED lighting were installed. And for design, we examine the capacity of design method for ACs. Frequently we found that larger capacity was available due to different factors, and we had to discover, where, exactly where these large capacity devices were available. And we had to have data. It’s hard to see, but basically the capacity of these devices, or equipments, the rooms for faculty, and seminar rooms, and research rooms, we realized that the capacity of different devices were much larger than they really needed.
We had to re-examine these capacity of this equipment. And also the externally funded retrofit projects for energy conservation, this was external funding available to university for larger buildings, for example, library, and institute of Animal laboratory, and mostly in university hospitals. We had very good results with large reduction of energy use. And what’s important here. This is a success due to continuing energy saving by contract. This includes operation and maintenance together. So, the company had to offer a maintenance.
We had continuation of controlling energy consumption, and also retrofit for energy saving on existing building, we had 30 million yen available for different repairs. We had a secured enough funding for this. And buildings need overall retrofit, or building new buildings, and existing buildings, and existing buildings it’s hard to secure budget. So, we had to have this budget, for example, replacing ultracold freezer. For example, is the budget comes from this funding.
And promotion of energy saving in operation, so between summer and winter, we had a action plan for energy conservation which was implemented. The CO2 consumption, the total emission decreased yearly.
In promoting energy conservation, we have the university president, and we have the energy management control officer. Facility planning and management committee horizontally, here we have the decision made or agreement reached, and we implement their decision. Naturally, we representative of each faculty or departments come, and experts are positioned here in the energy conservation promotion working group. And here, I am in-charge of this working group, energy conservation, the energy saving promotion supervisor, and the information goes down to every faculty member. So, 1000 people on Higashiyama Campus promote energy conservation. And numerical targets had been set for CO2, or how much to be reduced by when. And also, reducing energy consumption to 1% below last season, and reducing electric power demand to 4% below power contract. And also, 75%, the 24 hour energy consumption is called base electric power. We have a target of 1%, more than 1% decrease.
We’re thinking about new system. This is we’re simulating this system, so we give incentive and other departments who are not doing well are then repenalized. And collaborating with people, companies, we have different offers from companies. We take them on for field test on campus, and if they prove to be good, then we buy. And in Japanese buildings, we have air-conditioner in each room. Any user can control it, but we can control centrally, so that we can minimize the consumption of energy.
The energy data management system is made, so that we can clearly see where most energy consumption is made. And we make this visible, so that all people can see. And the peak hour of power consumption for operating campus, this is very important. So, peak hour of power consumption, the hour of that, and which department, and how much energy is being used. So, this is a very automatic analysis system is being constructed.
And also, future counter measures, what can be done. New system for air conditioning, various ideas come from companies. We will test to see the effectiveness of those ideas. So, without compromising comfort, this is the verifying the performance of air-conditioner. So, 40% reduction of energy consumption was made. So, for research, using the same conditions is made, and we verified if it was effective. The effect was 40%, but under same conditions we verify that it was-26%. And students also participated in this verification, and with a compromising comfort, we are verifying that as well.
For cooling, without controlled air temperature, there’s not really all that much difference in the air temperature. And maximum power demand control, so there is a demand response control is being introduced. If we are close to a contract amount, then forcefully we alleviate the power consumption for one hour or so. Probably we need this in the future. So, we are verifying, testing this system now.
And with these various ideas, the president declaration that we did achieve the more than 20% decrease, reduction by 2014. So, we’re turning the benefits to community, different seminars, and different opportunities, we are sharing the information.
Maybe my presentation was just very specific, and how organizations are created, and what is being done by each team.
Thank you for your attention.